declaration of independence
If you had to think of one document other than the Bible that people can most easily quote almost without thinking about it, that one document would be the Declaration of Independence. The comparison to the Bible is apt. Not that the Declaration of Independence is holy in a religious sense of the word. But it has a place of reverence in the hearts of the American people and in the history of the founding of this great nation.

While not the first words of the Declaration of Independence, these stirring words have that kind of prophetic power that anyone who hears them in immediately inspired by the beauty, the poetry and the deep truths that were so beautifully expressed in that historic document.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

The American Cowboy

Diposkan oleh vincent | 9:55 AM | | 1 komentar »

american cowboy
Americans have a unique vision of themselves and their role in the world. Unlike perhaps any other peoples in history, Americans see themselves as people of destiny and a people who were put here to do something phenomenal and something significant for history and for all peoples of the earth. This unique self-concept, sometimes perceived as arrogance, is deeply grounded in a set of archetypes that Americans use to form their vision of themselves in the world. And no other archetype is as powerful in the American psyche than that of the cowboy.

The actual American cowboy was indeed a unique individual. While probably not as noble and ruggedly handsome as the images created of him in the movies, they were unique types of men who carved out a civilization from the rugged wilderness that was the American west in the years before the turn of the last century.

Some of the reasons that the image of the cowboy sometimes includes elements of the outlaw and the loner is that much of the legend of the cowboy came from stories of refugees from the broken southern army who took to the life of the cowboy rather than attempt to integrate into a society that included making peace with “the Yankee”. And that type of individual certainly did account for many of the outlaws who went on to become the stuff of legend and stories even to this day.

Native American Dreamcatchers

Diposkan oleh vincent | 7:48 PM | | 0 komentar »

native american dreamcatcher
A dreamcatcher is a handmade object based on a hoop, incorporating a loose net and decorated with items unique to the particular dreamcatcher. In Native American culture, dreamcatchers were made as a charm to protect sleeping children from nightmares. The legend is that the dreamcatcher will catch bad dreams during the night, letting through only good ones.

Dreamcatchers are a authentic Native American Indian tradition, can be traced to the Ojibway (Chippewa tribe). The Ojibway would tie strands of sinew string around a frame of bent wood that as in a small round or tear drop shape. The pattern of the dreamcatcher would be similar to how the Ojibways tied the webbing for their snowshoes.

The Ojibway hang the dreamcatcher as a charm to protect sleeping children from nightmares. The legend is that the bad dreams will get caught in the web and disappear in the morning sun. Meanwhile, good dreams will find their way to the center of the dreamcatcher and float down the feather.

Native American Pow Wow

Diposkan oleh vincent | 7:41 PM | | 0 komentar »

pow wow native american
Pow wow is a fascinating gathering of Native American Indians which may last from days to a week. Pow wow is an important cultural expression of the Native American heritage.

The name pow wow derives from the Narragansett word powwaw, meaning shaman. It has since come to be used to describe any gathering of Native Americans of any tribes. An early twenty-first century pow wow is a specific type of event held by Native Americans.

Pow wows have evolved from a formal ceremony of the past into modern blend of dance, family reunion and festival. Over time Pow wow traditions have adapted and changed into a bright, fast and exciting event geared towards Native Americans and visitors alike.

Pow wows can vary in length from a single session of 5-6 hours to three days with one to three sessions a day. Major pow wows or pow wows called for a special occasion can be up to one week long.

native american beadwork
Long ago the Native American Indian decorated their garments with painted designs. They made colors with pigments of earth, grasses, clays, and berries. In time they began to make fine porcupine-quill embroidery, which they colored by boiling the quills in the paint pigments. Native American Indians also made beads from bone, shell, or dried berries. They fashioned the beads into necklaces or decorations for the fringes of their garments and bags.

About 1675 the European traders brought colorful glass beads to the tribes. The earliest beads brought by the white people were called pony beads by the Indians because they were brought in by the traders pony pack trains. Most of these beads were dark blue. Some were white and a few were a dull red color. The Indians worked them into several rows of blue, then a few rows of white and again the blues. This type of pony beadwork continued until about 1840, when a smaller seed bead was brought in. The Indians still use seed beads.

John F. Kennedy

Diposkan oleh vincent | 7:25 AM | | 0 komentar »

john f kennedy
In the life of this great nation, a few of its presidents have emerged from the pack as truly historic and memorable even more than others. Of course, the presidents from the generation of the founding fathers certainly fit that bill including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. And presidents that served the country in times of great crisis also are deeply honored in memory. But in recent memory, there probably no other president that brings up emotions of respect and admiration as much as that of John F. Kennedy.

Kennedy seemed to capture the hearts of the American people in a way that was unique in presidents before or since. Part of it may have been the era in history that the country was in when he became the President of the United States. The historic time between 1950 and 1970 was a time when the largest generation of youth, now known as the “baby boomers”, was coming of age. With them a new youth movement brought a sense of optimism, a “can do” attitude and to some extent a sense of revolution. They were looking for new ways of seeing things, a new vision of the future and new leadership and John F. Kennedy was the perfect man of the hour to provide that leadership.

Native American Indian Music

Diposkan oleh vincent | 11:53 PM | | 0 komentar »

native american music
The music of the Native American Indians consists mostly of songs and dances. They have songs for games, children, love, work and social dancing. But most of their music is associated with some kind of religious activity.

Before 1900 the Plains Indians performed the ghost dance. It was supposed to drive away the hated white men and help the Native Americans get back their land and buffalo. It consisted mainly of singing and dancing. Although the Native Americans do not do the ghost dance anymore, they still sing the songs.

Ghost dance songs are different from other songs of the Plains Indians. They do not go very high or very low, and they repeat each phrase of melody before going on to the next. The older songs of the Plains Indians start very high and work their way down to a low, long, drawn-out tone. These songs are accompanied by a drum played loudly and slowly.

native american kokopelli
Kokopelli is a fertility deity, who is worshipped by many Native American Indian tribes in the Southwest. And like most fertility deities, Kokopelli presides over both childbirth and agriculture. He is also thought to be a trickster god, traveling trader, insect, musician, warrior and hunting magician.

Kokopelli likeness varies almost as much as his legends. He is usually illustrated as a humpbacked flute player often with a huge phallus and antenna-like protrusions on his head. The first identified images of him appear on Hohokam pottery dated to sometime between 750 A.D and 850 A.D.

Thomas Jefferson

Diposkan oleh vincent | 11:00 AM | | 0 komentar »

thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson is one of those almost mythic figures from early American history that stand tall as one of the great heroes of the revolution and the early definition of what this country was going to become. Sometimes it’s easy to look at a figure that stands so tall in history and think, perhaps some of that is myth. But when you look at the history of the times, he was every bit as great as our adoration of him suggests he was.

Thomas Jefferson’s service to the new American union lasted over fifty years. He not only contributed to the core philosophical underpinnings upon which our democracy I based, he served in a variety of offices and made some phenomenal contributions to the developing country including…

* 1775 - Served in the Continental Congress
* 1776 – Wrote the Declaration of Independence
* 1779-1781 - Governor of Virginia
* 1783 – Elected to Congress
* 1784-1789 – Commissioner and minister to France
* 1790-1793 – America’s first Secretary of State under George Washington
* 1797-1801 – Served as Vice President of the United States
* 1801-1809 – Third President of the United States
* 1803 – Approved of and helped launch the Lewis and Clark Expedition
* 1803 – Purchased the Louisiana Territory for the United States
* 1815 – Launched the Library of Congress
* 1825 – founded the University of Virginia

The Legacy of Columbus

Diposkan oleh vincent | 10:56 AM | | 0 komentar »

If you thought back to the first things you ever learned about the history of America, the one that jumps out is that Columbus sailed the ocean blue and discovered America is 1492. While the date is correct, we later learned when our study of history became more scholarly that there is some dispute about whether Columbus discovered America at all. So what is the real legacy that this legend of Columbus has given to the American culture that has made him such a revered figure in cultural history?

So much of the Columbus story is approximate that, at first review, we would almost relegate the story of how Columbus discovered America to the level of a myth that borders on superhero worship. But Columbus was not a myth. There really was an explorer named Columbus who carried out three bold journeys across the ocean and during those journeys, he did indeed discover “the new world.” His ships really were named the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria and he did indeed embark one of those three voyages in 1492.

The legacy of Columbus then is more than just the facts of his exploratory journeys and their outcome. There is reason to believe that Columbus’s fabled “discovery of America” did not occur on North American soil but somewhat further south of here, somewhere in the Bahamas. But the legacy of Columbus lies in his spirit and the challenge he took on that is part of the American spirit and one we identify with so strongly.

Benjamin Franklin

Diposkan oleh vincent | 10:51 AM | | 0 komentar »

benjamin franklin
Sometimes when a country is just getting organized, its citizens are considered to be uneducated, out of touch or primitive. But exactly opposite was the truth when the great American experiment began to take shape. The world did not see America as provincial or simple and that is due to a large part to the work of the man many that many have called “The First American”. That man was Benjamin Franklin.

Benjamin Franklin stands out amongst those we would call “The Founding Fathers” because he was neither a military man nor a politician. He was one of the few we think of a one of our nation’s fathers that never served as president. But that does not mean that his contributions to the start of this great country were not profound and far reaching.

Benjamin Franklin could easily be described as what was popularly known in his day as a “renaissance man”. He was truly proficient in many fields of discipline and he had a mind that was fascinated with all areas of study and knowledge. As such he brought to the discussions with his fellow founding fathers a knowledge of political theory, an awareness of history and an ability to speculate on the perfect union that was crucial to the laying the conceptual foundation of what America would come to be when it blossomed into reality.

Abraham Lincoln

Diposkan oleh vincent | 10:44 AM | | 0 komentar »

abraham lincoln
We would like to think all of our presidents of the United States were truly great men and to be sure, just handling the awesome responsibility of the presidency takes a special kind of individual. One of the unique and great things about the system of government in America is the concept of citizen leadership. This is the idea of an ordinary citizen rising up and becoming president for a while and then returning to private life.

But of the handful of men who have held that office, a few have stood out for their great achievements and leadership in a time that changed the country for ever. And one of these truly great presidents was Abraham Lincoln. Probably more than any other president, Lincoln had to handle an internal civil war that was far more than shouting and name calling. This was a dispute that could have torn the country in half and starting a rupturing that could have resulted in dozens of small weak independent states instead of the powerful nation we know as America today.

Quilts In American History

Diposkan oleh vincent | 10:32 PM | | 0 komentar »

Quilts have been a an expression of American women over the past hundred years. Quilts are being reappraised by historians, art critics and a growing public as a form and expression of American folk art. The creativity of generations of American women is gaining recognition for their quilts.

Quilts are no longer stored in closets and trunks. Happily quilts are finding their way back into our lives and homes. Many quilts can also be found on the walls of galleries and museums in the world. Quilts have come to be a remarkable design tradition which has developed in the United States, since colonial times.

By the mid-eighteenth century there were three distinct English needlework styles used in quilts which had found their way to America. First there was the appliqué covers, pieced patchwork (stitched shapes) and quilted whole cloth coverings.

American Family Foundation

Diposkan oleh vincent | 10:25 PM | | 0 komentar »

Among the dozens of different groups that have sprouted over the years clamoring for various family-related issues, the American Family Foundation (AFA) has to be one of the most highly-visible and controversial of the lot. The groups has come a long way since being established as a wholly conservative, Christian non-profit organization in 1977 by Rev. Donald Wildmon. At that time, the group was known as the National Federation for Decency and it was based in Tupelo, Mississippi.

One of the areas where the AFA is visible is through the articles that it publishes regularly promoting traditional nuclear family values and the main tenets of Christianity. The group is known for its strong support for Christian missionaries and its intense hatred and opposition against abortion, homosexuality and pornography. They are also known for their role in promoting "clean entertainment" and for preaching the values of thrift and railing against excessive debt.

As an activist group, the AFA is one of the best-organized in the country, especially when it comes to launching boycotts and letter writing campaigns that promote traditional values that they hold dear. Among the more prominent boycotts that the group has undertaken are those against fashion company Abercrombie & Fitch (on the grounds that it uses "softcore pornography in company catalogs"), film distributor Movie Gallery (which it refers to as a "distributor of pornographic videos"), convenience store chain Kmart (for its role in the "Sale of adult-rated music CDs") and athletic brand Nike (for "promoting a back door move to legalize homosexual marriage").

American Culture

Diposkan oleh vincent | 10:21 PM | | 0 komentar »

The first idea that comes to my mind when I think of American culture is uniqueness. Our culture is drastically different from so many others around the globe and those differences (some good and some bad) are what make our unique country what it is.

Culture is defined by The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third edition as “The sum of attitudes, customs, and beliefs that distinguishes one group of people from another. Culture is transmitted, through language, material objects, ritual, institutions, and art, from one generation to the next.” American cultural traits are vast because of the diversity of its population.

Key American cultural traits are outlined in the textbook Global Issues and Change by B. Johnson and J.S. Johnson they are listed as 1) Freedom, 2) Individualism, 3) Self-Reliance, 4) Achievement and 5) Pragmatism. All five of these characteristics have played an important role in the shaping of the American culture but the one that stands out the most is freedom. Without freedom none of the other characteristics would have developed. Freedom is what has made the entire American experience possible. The individualist idea developed as a result of the larger goal of freedom, they are offshoots of each other. Individualism requires a freedom of the individual, which was not possible under colonial rule where England took precedence over the individual. Furthermore self-reliance, achievement and pragmatism all were made possible by America’s freedom.

There are several species of salmon fish in the Pacific Northwest region. These are the Coho, Sockeye, Pink, Chum, Atlantic and the largest which is the King or Chinook. Salmon are born in the rivers and swim down to the ocean where they live in the saltwater. At spawning time, they return to the river where they were born, lay the eggs, and then die.

The young hatch and start the life cycle over again. Salmon fish have always been an important mainstay food source for the Northwest Native Indian people as well as much wildlife in the region including many large birds, bears, and river otters. This is the reason why the salmon is a popular subject in Northwest Native Indian artwork and culture.

There are several species of salmon fish in the Pacific Northwest region. These are the Coho, Sockeye, Pink, Chum, Atlantic and the largest which is the King or Chinook. Salmon are born in the rivers and swim down to the ocean where they live in the saltwater. At spawning time, they return to the river where they were born, lay the eggs, and then die.

There is no other style that's quite as distinctive as the Southwestern dcor. There are two style the natural version and the city version but no matter which you have adding sand painted lamps to your southwest dcor will definitely look great!

If you're not sure what a southwest dcor might look like picture the Grand Canyon's red mountains, the green of the tall desert cactus, and the Native American and Mexican pottery and textiles that are such an important part of American heritage.

The two types of southwestern style are the same but different. Colors remain true to both. Think desert sunset, prairies, and hills. But the materials used are different. The natural version uses over scaled furniture that's rugged and rustic with plenty of wood, iron, and stone. The city version uses peach and teal colors, wall hangings, coyote figurines, and plastic cactus decorations.

The natural is by far the most superior design. Use Native American Indian accents such as tapestries, pottery, textiles, and paintings. Organic materials including rocks, stone, wood, and metal are important and so are adobe fireplace and log pole ladders. Use lots of bright patterns within natural colored fabrics.

You might think about doing your walls in soft sand tones with perhaps a deep contrasting red wall. Use Navajo designs and patterns for borders and throw rugs.

And to go with all that dcor nothing looks better than Navajo Sand Painted Lamps. The sand paintings transposed onto the lamps come from full size Navajo paintings, many from healing ceremonies.

Sand paintings are very colorful and detailed and each figure has a special meaning. The designs are those that are very familiar and very important to the Navajo people. Yels or Yays which are the Navajo holy people are very common in sand paintings combined with the four sacred plants - tobacco, squash, beans, and corn - are all very popular in the sand paintings. You will also commonly find plants, lightning, animals, bows & arrows, and rainbow.

Traditional artists make the sand from rocks that are gathered and then crush into sand producing the wide array of colors used in sand paintings. This amazing art form has been transformed onto the lamps by the artists. This is a very complex process since a lamp is not a flat surface like a painting. The end results are spectacular!

If you are going to try your hand at a sand painted lamp then you can purchase the correct type of sand at your local craft store or department stores like Walmart.

There are many different sizes of sand painted lamps on the market from the smaller accent lamps to the larger table lamps. Choose shades that are in the traditional southwestern colors and make sure that the shade does not overpower the art work on the lamp body.

Choose lamps in a size that works with your room and don't be afraid to place them in positions that make them stand out and get noticed. The sand painted lamps are truly a work of art and it's a shame to tuck them out of the way where they don't get the attention the deserve.

Joanne is an author of If you're looking for more lighting decor ideas for your home visit

In the United States, a large amount of information is taught in local schools. This information is often vital to the success of a student. Math, science, English, physical education, and history are taught in many schools. The information taught in those subjects varies from school to school. Unfortunately, not everything that should be taught in a lesson plan is.

The history of Native American Indians is something that many individuals know little about. Native American Indian history is taught in most schools located on Indian reservations, but they should not be the only place where it is taught. Most public and private schools quickly cover Native American Indian history, but many students do not learn everything they could or should.

If Native American Indian history is not extensively covered in your child’s school, there are a number of ways that you can educate them yourself. Many parents wonder why they should continue to educate their children on the history of Native American Indians. The answer varies, but there are number of different ways that a child could benefit from being educated on Native American Indian history.

As previously mentioned, there are a number of different ways to educate your children on the history of Native American Indians. Many of these ways can include the whole family. In addition to educating your child, your family could also spend quality time together. What could be more fun than that?

In history classes across the country, most students are educated in the form of books. Books are a valuable source of information, but there are ways to educate a child and have fun at the same time. Parents are encouraged to take their children to a Native American Indian museum. Native American Indian museums are located all around the country. They allow children to physically see Native American Indian artifacts and much more. This experience is more memorable than reading a passage out of a book.

Another way to educate your children on Native American Indian history is to play a game. There are a number of online websites that offer homemade game ideas or you could develop your own. Board games or flash card games can be developed. These games can easily include important Native American Indian history facts. Children of all ages love games and it is a fun way to learn at the same time.

In addition to playing a history game or visiting a museum, it is also possible to learn the history of Native American Indians by watching movies. There are a wide variety of educational movies available for parents and children of all ages. Watching these movies together as a family is a great way for everyone to educate themselves on the struggles that the Native American Indians faced and the victories that they achieved.

It has been said that children that are educated on the history of multiple cultures will grow-up more diverse. Don’t limit your child by only letting their school educate them. You never know, but you may learn valuable Native American Indian history facts yourself.

About the Author
Edward Charkow is the administrator for American Indian History. For more information please visit:


Kachina Doll

Diposkan oleh vincent | 9:40 AM | | 0 komentar »

To a shaman a kachina isn't really a doll or a child's toy. Also, it isn't a collector's piece of art or a decoration. However, it is often used that way, and that's ok too. There is a place for that approach in our lives. They do make a powerful addition to any home's decor, and make a great conversation piece. So, if you are a history buff, especially American history, a kachina collection is most appropriate. Kachinas origionally came from the Hopi and Navajo tribes in the American Southwest. If you enjoy sacred art, like I do, add a kachina to your collection.

However, if you are a mystic, shaman or are spiritually oriented, a kachina is really a working tool. The kachina acts as a connection to aspects of the life force. Some kachinas act as a contact to protective energies. All kachinas connect you and your environment to spirit forces that can be helpful to you in endless ways. They change the Feng Shui of any room or situation for the better.

So when searching for a kachina, look for it's qualities and it's historical use. If you need help with any issue in your life, purchase a kachina that is designed to target that problem. If you can't locate one that is exact to your needs, then go with your gut reaction...and trust that.

A kachina is really a type of primitive fetish, something you really relate and connect to. If you don't relate deeply, the kachina will not be as effective as a helping tool. You do need to talk and communicate with the kachina, like some speak to saints, and ask for specfic help.

If you use your kachina as a sacred messinger, keep the area around the fetish clean and clear. You want to help the kachina to not pick up negative or damaging energies. Treat the kachina and it's environment as you would any sacred object, and enjoy it's help.

Finally, like all relationships, your connection to your kachina can take time. The longer you have it the more you get to know each other. So as time goes by, your kachina can shift it's help to you as your needs change.

* There are many kachinas available today, some are of a kind works of art. However, as a working tool you don't have to spend alot to get the right piece. Remember that your connection to the specific kachina is more critical then simply must 'talk' to you.

* As a shaman, I have seen kachinas helping people who didn't even realize that they were getting help. So you don't have to be a believer........they help anyway. Hey, we could all use a little help these days!

About the Author
Jerry is a professional shaman. He publishes an online magazine dealing with shamanism and holistic living. You can view a good selection of inexpensive kachinas in the publication: To access the magazine or shop for kachinas, click here:


The Kachina doll is one of the most prominent forms of Southwest Native Indian artwork. Masked and costumed Native Indian dancers who represented various spiritual and natural elements of life are called Kachinas. Spirits could represent different types of people including clowns, singers, warriors and even wood carriers. Various wildlife or animals such as eagles, bears, buffalos, deer, owls, butterflies and badgers are often represented. There are Kachinas for the sun, moon, stars, earth and even different crops such as squash.

There is a Kachina spirit for every purpose and in fact, there are over 900 documented Kachinas in history. Kachinas are considered guardians or messengers to the Gods. Interestingly enough, dancers from the tribes are usually male even if a female Kachina is impersonated in a performance.
Southwest Native Indian tribes such as the Navajo, Zuni and Hopi, made Kachina dolls for use in religious ceremonies. The carved Kachina doll was also used as a teaching tool. What the spirits taught the elders of the tribes were then taught to the others through the representations in the Kachina dolls.
Kachina dolls were originally given to women and children of the tribes as gifts but later on, they were made for everyone’s enjoyment. Kachina dolls are one of the major art forms right up there along with rugs, jewelry and pottery in Southwest Native Indian art.
Common sizes for Kachina dolls range from a few inches to over 20 inches in height. One can easily find smaller dolls which are often priced under $100 but a large Kachina doll made by a well known name artist could easily be priced at several thousand dollars. Such a doll is a much sought after and highly prized piece of artwork by collectors of Southwest Indian art. Original higher end Kachinas are usually signed by the artist and come with some sort of documentation certifying its authenticity. Collectors should seek out only reputable sellers of Kachina dolls to ensure Native made artwork.

About the Author
Clint Leung is owner of Free Spirit Gallery ( , an online gallery specializing in Inuit Eskimo and Northwest Native American art including carvings, sculpture and prints. Free Spirit Gallery has numerous information resource articles with photos of authentic Inuit and Native Indian art as well as free eCards.

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Every woman at one time or another in their lives experienced the passion and excitement of carrying and use of accessories which was inspired by our ancestors of the Amerindians. Thanks to our many hundreds of years, different styles of Native American Jewelry have proved to be unique and distinctive in their designs that were created and worn by almost every generation. Benefiting from the popularity of these kinds of jewelry was the popularity that has been demonstrated by the prominent and prosperous people who have posted their choices for many years.

If you are the least bit interested in knowing how it would feel to wear some of these same models as your favorite stars and styles of our native America where hundreds of years ago then you're in chance for today, you can decorate yourself with the luxury and elegance of this beautiful looking American Indian jewelry.

In reality, there is hundreds of Native American Jewelry diverse that you can choose to pride. Most of these items are manufactured develop gold, some of the most modern can be found made of platinum, silver or bronze. You have to properly view and select one of these beautiful jewelry that you are43 in search of a necklace, a matching bracelet, stone rings, watches elegant style and many other delicious jewels. You will not challenge you need to do is find a model you will find calls to your taste and find that one style that will complement your personality.

In the field of necklaces, you can easily explore a wide range from simple string types for the man in your life belongs to those outstanding and pendants designed specifically for women. Once you have these collars around the neck sparkle of these stones finely detailed certainly provide a radiant glow of your personality and get noticed in a crowd.

If you are really passionate about jewelry, you can even match your necklace with a bracelet or ring complementary. As with any type of jewelry that you can often find that the Native American jewelry can be purchased as a careful design and construct4ed set. It is often your best choice to decide on the purchase of several pieces at once. These pairs of jewels and coins represent the ultimate key that allows you to get the best call and get the look you're really after.

By: Double Dee Deals

Article Directory:

Turquoise Jewelry including Native American Jewelry at Double Dee Deals.


There has been an increasing interest in male sexual enhancement solutions and it stands to reason that it may be difficult to decide which product is right for you. On you can hear what real people are saying about Sarsaparilla

To get up to date information on Sarsaparilla, check out the in-depth review on the respected

Review Summary

Sarsaparilla is the root of a vine native to tropical areas in the Western Hemisphere and used by the indigenous peoples there for a variety of conditions, including impotence and sterility. It is becoming popular as a male enhancement drug because some believe it helps the body produce testosterone. Not all experts agree and the verdict is out, as consumers have not experienced the so-called benefits and testing has not confirmed the claims.

Ingredients At A Glance

This plant, and the medicinal compounds made from its root, should not be confused with sasparilla, which is derived from a tree and used as a flavoring for root beer. Sarsaparilla, or Smilax, is a woody vine in the lily family that grows in the rainforest. It produces climbing tendrils, flowers and berries, but the medicinal part used by humans is the root, which can grow to 6 to 8 feet. Sarsaparilla can be made into a tea and is also sold in capsules.

Ingredients In Focus

Sarsaparilla root has been used by natives of tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere - Central and South America and the Caribbean - for centuries. It was brought back to Europe by explorers who noticed the way it was used as a medicine: It is a detoxifier, anti-bacterial, digestive, pain reliever, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant that is used to relieve fever and rheumatism. It was used to treat syphilis until the early 20th century. It has also been used to treat impotency (erectile dysfunction, or ED) and sterility in traditional societies. There is not actual proof that this herb has carried out the purported functions. The root contains plant steroids and saponins, which some claim help the body to produce testosterone (activity has been demonstrated in laboratories but not in the human body as yet). The saponins are also believed to help the body absorb other nutrients and make the ingredients in natural supplements more bioavailable.


While it is used to treat ED in the rainforest, perhaps in conjunction with other elements that those outside that environment know nothing around, Sarsaparilla has not been shown to have any efficacy in the production of testosterone or in promoting circulation to the genitals to aid erectile function. Some plant steroids have been shown to be a precursor to hormone production in the laboratory, but these effects have not been duplicated in the human body. Sarsaparilla, however, is known to be a healthy general tonic and to help the body absorb other nutrients, so it could be a good addition to a male enhancer that contains other, proven ingredients like Tribulus Terrestris and Yohimbe. It is available as a supplement by itself or in combination with other ingredients. There are no known adverse side effects, although taking large doses is thought cause some irritation to the gastrointestinal tract.


• Contains plant steroids and saponins
• Possible general tonic for health


• Not proven effective in treating ED
• May work better when combined with other ingredients

Final Thoughts

Some marketers of Sarsaparilla claim that it contains testosterone; this is patently false as no plant materials so far have been shown to contain that hormone. Others claim that the plant steroids and saponins in this root are involved in conversion to testosterone, but this so far has not been clinically proven. This is likely why most men who have commented on using this herb for sexual enhancement do not have anything good to say. This ingredient is a very useful one, medicinally, but not so much for ED or other male sexual dysfunctions. We would recommend it only as part of a combination supplement that contains powerful enhancers like Tribulus Terrestris and Yohimbe and/or Damiana. The links posted above will direct readers to consumer provided information on hundreds of male enhancement products. The resources are quite popular among men who are conducting searched for male enhancement methods.

About the Author
Shane Crafton is a diet editor, who's team specializes in health, fitness and weight loss reporting.

America has always been a pluralistic society, broken into small groups with symbolic boundaries separating different sects. Positively, the pluralistic society allowed certain immigrant groups to remain affectionate and loyal to their ancestral religions and cultures, and also to actively participate in American political life. A civic culture developed in America, under the guidelines of republicanism:

“Government through elected officials, the eligibility of all citizens to participate in public life, and the freedom to differ in religious and individual life “(Miljkovic-Gacic & Ferrell, 129-133)

European immigrants could become members of the polity on a basis of equal rights with native born citizens regardless of the country they came from or the religion they believed in. While European immigrants were enveloped in the American myth, and all this vast land had to offer, two other groups: blacks and Native Americans were not allowed the same opportunities. The myth did not apply to Native Americans (Indians). Indians were not encouraged to remain in touch with their cultural and religious roots the way other groups were. The American government did not want the heathens to continue with their uncivilized lifestyle.

Consequently, several programs were developed to help the Indians assimilate to the American way of life. Once the Indians were pushed onto the least fertile land in the country, tribes were divided up and individuals were given their own plots of land in order to become self-sufficient. Indian children were taken away from their parents to be educated about the civilized life and the white man’s' laws. This separation was another attempt, by the white man, to discourage the continuation of the heathen traditions. Unlike the European immigrants, the majority of the Native Americans did not care to assimilate, nor did they wish to participate in the American government. The Indians just wanted to continue with the tribal pluralism that they practiced in the time before the white man's arrival. The Native Americans wished to remain self-governing, independent nations.

As tragic as the story of Native Americans is, there is another story: that of African Americans (blacks), that some would consider even more tragic. While Indians were constantly being encouraged to assimilate against their will, black: who often believed in American ideals, were forced to live in a segregated society. Blacks were never believed to be equals of the white man. From the time the first twenty blacks were brought to the United States as indentured servants in the 1600's; until the 1970's, blacks were considered to be inferior to whites (some would argue that this belief still prevails). Many believed, as did our great leader: Thomas Jefferson that blacks were intellectually, spiritually, and physically inferior to whites. Accordingly, the majority of our nation's history is plagued with pluralism caste.

This pluralism has been accompanied by all the aspects of a caste system: social indignity, physical brutality, educational deprivation, and political exclusion. Unlike the Indians, however, the torment and exclusion of blacks only strengthened their belief in the ideals of the Constitution and the American myth. African-Americans and Native Americans were all affected by laws passed between 1865 and 1900. Some, like the child labor laws, were beneficial to these groups, but mostly the laws were unfair and unbeneficial. Whether they were federal, state, or local laws, they all had a big impact on the lives of these people.

Works Cited
Miljkovic-Gacic I, Ferrell RE, Patrick AL. Estimates of African, European and Native American ancestry in Afro-Caribbean men on the island of Tobago. ISSN: 0001-5652, 2005; Vol. 60 (3), pp. 129-33

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